As a triathlon coach, I purposely plan an athlete’s year based on the concept of periodization. It is this cycle of building volume, building intensity and recovering that make for a better, faster, stronger athlete.
Here is a primer on the cycles used:
Macro Cycle = Annual plan with defined focus periods. This is where “Base, build, taper, race, etc.” come in.
Meso Cycle = Focus period plan with defined volume cycle. This is where I identify volume level (usually in a four week cycle), where you progressively build volume each week for three weeks followed by a recovery week. Actual hours are dependent on the individual and their race goals.
Micro Cycle = Weekly plan with workouts arranged to incorporate progressive overload with recovery and rest.
There is certainly more detail than that, but it all starts with defining the cycles.